Refresh your Java skills--聊聊Java9 中模块化设计是如何实现类似IOC依赖注入效果及与其区别

Refresh your Java skills–聊聊Java9 中模块化设计是如何实现类似IOC依赖注入效果及与其区别

场景引入

如何实现IOC的效果,我们可以来想想,无非就是一个隐式实现,而想要做到,总不能什么都没有,来个巧妇难为无米之炊的境地吧,所以说,米必须要有滴,在Spring中就是一个bean,也就是说,容器里得有米,再官话点就是上下文中得存在所需要的bean。同样模块化中两个互相隔离的模块想要达到这种效果,也要先往jvm里扔个对象进去的,然后who use ,who get 就可以了。

请看例子(可以认为是我们平常写的SpringMVC项目中的service->serviceImpl->controller):

service接口化模块

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package com.example.api;
public interface CodecFactory {
Encoder getEncoder(String encodingName);
Decoder getDecoder(String encodingName);
}

上面这个接口所在的模块定义:

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module migo.codec.api {
exports com.example.api;
}

serviceImpl化模块

接着,我们定义一个实现模块:

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module migo.codec.service {
requires com.example.api;
provides com.example.api.CodecFactory with com.example.service.codec.CodecFactoryImpl;
}

具体实现就省略了。

controller化模块

最后我们在最上层的模块内使用:

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module migo.codec.controller {
requires migo.codec.api;
uses com.example.api.CodecFactory;
}

具体的controller模块内使用的代码如下:

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ServiceLoader<CodecFactory> loader = ServiceLoader.load(CodecFactory.class);
for (CodecFactory factory : loader) {
Encoder enc = factory.getEncoder("PNG");
if (enc != null)
... use enc to encode a PNG file
break;
}

或者:

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public static void main(String... args) {
CodecFactory cf =
ServiceLoader.load(CodecFactory.class)
.findFirst()
.orElse(getFallBack());
if(cf == null) {
System.out.println("Using a fallback");
} else {
System.out.println("Found a service");
}
}
private static CodecFactory getFallBack() {
return null;
}

亦或者假如有很多服务实现的提供者,而某个提供服务实现的provider(也就是serviceImpl)上面有添加注解@PNG,而我们想使用带有这个注解的实例,可以使用以下代码:

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ServiceLoader<CodecFactory> loader = ServiceLoader.load(CodecFactory.class);
Set<CodecFactory> pngFactories = loader
.stream()
.filter(p -> p.type().isAnnotationPresent(PNG.class))
.map(Provider::get)
.collect(Collectors.toSet());

内部工作机制原理

具体思路:

通过在模块定义里面的provides aaa with aaaImpl 这个功能,可以很容易的想到key value组合
当我们碰到这对关键字的时候,我们就会解析并将aaa做为keyaaaImpl添加到一个list中并将这个list作为value,并添加到一个Map<String,list>
在我们碰到uses关键字(源码里面acc会去确定这个权限),并通过ServiceLoader.load(key)来找到这个key所对应的一个包含了实现类具体地址的list,可能有多个,那么,拓展功能,我们使用一个装饰模式,也就是继承了Iterable这个接口,可以达到遍历并生成具体实例来达到要求。

源码解析

确定米粒的路径

那么按照这个思路,我们反着来找下,这里只列关键代码:

从上面的Demo中,我们可以看到,通过类的class字节码来加载:

之前有说,巧妇难为无米之炊,所以这个上下文很重要,我们的类加载器也是要讲究上下文的

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/**
* Creates a new service loader for the given service type, using the
* current thread's {@linkplain java.lang.Thread#getContextClassLoader
* context class loader}.
*
* <p> An invocation of this convenience method of the form
* <pre>{@code
* ServiceLoader.load(service)
* }</pre>
*
* is equivalent to
*
* <pre>{@code
* ServiceLoader.load(service, Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader())
* }</pre>
*
* @apiNote Service loader objects obtained with this method should not be
* cached VM-wide. For example, different applications in the same VM may
* have different thread context class loaders. A lookup by one application
* may locate a service provider that is only visible via its thread
* context class loader and so is not suitable to be located by the other
* application. Memory leaks can also arise. A thread local may be suited
* to some applications.
*
* @param <S> the class of the service type
*
* @param service
* The interface or abstract class representing the service
*
* @return A new service loader
*
* @throws ServiceConfigurationError
* if the service type is not accessible to the caller or the
* caller is in an explicit module and its module descriptor does
* not declare that it uses {@code service}
*
* @revised 9
* @spec JPMS
*/
@CallerSensitive
public static <S> ServiceLoader<S> load(Class<S> service) {
ClassLoader cl = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
return new ServiceLoader<>(Reflection.getCallerClass(), service, cl);
}

我们进去这个ServiceLoader,其实无非就是一个构造器而已了,关键代码我截下:

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this.service = svc;
this.serviceName = svc.getName();
this.layer = null;
this.loader = cl;
this.acc = (System.getSecurityManager() != null)
? AccessController.getContext()
: null;

有了这个加载器之后,其实我们就拿到了上下文和访问权限的一些东西,我们再来看看这个类的字段:

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public final class ServiceLoader<S>
implements Iterable<S>
{
// The class or interface representing the service being loaded
private final Class<S> service;
// The class of the service type
private final String serviceName;
// The module layer used to locate providers; null when locating
// providers using a class loader
private final ModuleLayer layer;
// The class loader used to locate, load, and instantiate providers;
// null when locating provider using a module layer
private final ClassLoader loader;
// The access control context taken when the ServiceLoader is created
private final AccessControlContext acc;
// The lazy-lookup iterator for iterator operations
private Iterator<Provider<S>> lookupIterator1;
private final List<S> instantiatedProviders = new ArrayList<>();
// The lazy-lookup iterator for stream operations
private Iterator<Provider<S>> lookupIterator2;
private final List<Provider<S>> loadedProviders = new ArrayList<>();
private boolean loadedAllProviders; // true when all providers loaded
// Incremented when reload is called
private int reloadCount;
private static JavaLangAccess LANG_ACCESS;

可以看到,它实现了按照我们分析的Iterable接口,这样我们就可以多了很多操作,而且我们也看到了下面这几个东西,这样我们就可以做事情了:

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private Iterator<Provider<S>> lookupIterator2;
private final List<Provider<S>> loadedProviders = new ArrayList<>();
private boolean loadedAllProviders; // true when all providers loaded

我们走进findFirst这个方法来看看:

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public Optional<S> findFirst() {
Iterator<S> iterator = iterator();
if (iterator.hasNext()) {
return Optional.of(iterator.next());
} else {
return Optional.empty();
}
}

我们看到了iterator()这个方法:

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public Iterator<S> iterator() {
// create lookup iterator if needed
if (lookupIterator1 == null) {
lookupIterator1 = newLookupIterator();
}
return new Iterator<S>() {
// record reload count
final int expectedReloadCount = ServiceLoader.this.reloadCount;
...
}

现在newLookupIterator()进入到我们的视野中,没有条件创建条件,刚开始我们可没有拿到米,现在去找米去:

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/**
* Returns a new lookup iterator.
*/
private Iterator<Provider<S>> newLookupIterator() {
assert layer == null || loader == null;
if (layer != null) {
return new LayerLookupIterator<>();
} else {
Iterator<Provider<S>> first = new ModuleServicesLookupIterator<>();
Iterator<Provider<S>> second = new LazyClassPathLookupIterator<>();
return new Iterator<Provider<S>>() {
@Override
public boolean hasNext() {
return (first.hasNext() || second.hasNext());
}
@Override
public Provider<S> next() {
if (first.hasNext()) {
return first.next();
} else if (second.hasNext()) {
return second.next();
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
}
};
}
}

这里抛开其他我们来看ModuleServicesLookupIterator()这个构造函数 :

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ModuleServicesLookupIterator() {
this.currentLoader = loader;
this.iterator = iteratorFor(loader);
}

映入眼帘的是iteratorFor(ClassLoader loader)这个方法:

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/**
* Returns an iterator to iterate over the implementations of {@code
* service} in modules defined to the given class loader or in custom
* layers with a module defined to this class loader.
*/
private Iterator<ServiceProvider> iteratorFor(ClassLoader loader) {
// modules defined to the class loader
ServicesCatalog catalog;
if (loader == null) {
catalog = BootLoader.getServicesCatalog();
} else {
catalog = ServicesCatalog.getServicesCatalogOrNull(loader);
}
//此处往下到我中文标记结束就是我们的正主了
List<ServiceProvider> providers;
if (catalog == null) {
providers = List.of();
} else {
providers = catalog.findServices(serviceName);
}
//结束
// modules in layers that define modules to the class loader
ClassLoader platformClassLoader = ClassLoaders.platformClassLoader();
if (loader == null || loader == platformClassLoader) {
return providers.iterator();
} else {
List<ServiceProvider> allProviders = new ArrayList<>(providers);
Iterator<ModuleLayer> iterator = LANG_ACCESS.layers(loader).iterator();
while (iterator.hasNext()) {
ModuleLayer layer = iterator.next();
for (ServiceProvider sp : providers(layer)) {
ClassLoader l = loaderFor(sp.module());
if (l != null && l != platformClassLoader) {
allProviders.add(sp);
}
}
}
return allProviders.iterator();
}
}

这里终于找到了findServices(String service)这个方法:

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/**
* Returns the (possibly empty) list of service providers that implement
* the given service type.
*/
public List<ServiceProvider> findServices(String service) {
return map.getOrDefault(service, Collections.emptyList());
}

结合getOrDefault的源码可知:

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default V getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue) {
V v;
return (((v = get(key)) != null) || containsKey(key))
? v
: defaultValue;
}

是不是和我们的具体思路接上轨了

拿到我们想要的大米

而我们的provider实例从何而来,请容我娓娓道来咯:

我们从jdk.internal.module.Modules这个模块定义类中可以找到addProvides这个方法,也就是说在我们加载这个模块的时候,这个动作就已经要干活了:

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/**
* Updates module m to provide a service
*/
public static void addProvides(Module m, Class<?> service, Class<?> impl) {
ModuleLayer layer = m.getLayer();
PrivilegedAction<ClassLoader> pa = m::getClassLoader;
ClassLoader loader = AccessController.doPrivileged(pa);
ClassLoader platformClassLoader = ClassLoaders.platformClassLoader();
if (layer == null || loader == null || loader == platformClassLoader) {
// update ClassLoader catalog
ServicesCatalog catalog;
if (loader == null) {
catalog = BootLoader.getServicesCatalog();
} else {
catalog = ServicesCatalog.getServicesCatalog(loader);
}
catalog.addProvider(m, service, impl);
}
if (layer != null) {
// update Layer catalog
JLA.getServicesCatalog(layer).addProvider(m, service, impl);
}
}

然后我们可以从sun.instrument.InstrumentationImpl这个类来看到其工作方式(通过其注释就可以看到这个类和JVM相关):

在加载模块的时候就执行了下面的代码,看下面update provides这个注释的代码可以知道其调用了上面的addProvides这个方法,而最后也是调用了addProvider(m, service, impl)

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/**
* The Java side of the JPLIS implementation. Works in concert with a native JVMTI agent
* to implement the JPLIS API set. Provides both the Java API implementation of
* the Instrumentation interface and utility Java routines to support the native code.
* Keeps a pointer to the native data structure in a scalar field to allow native
* processing behind native methods.
*/
public class InstrumentationImpl implements Instrumentation {
...
@Override
public void redefineModule(Module module,
Set<Module> extraReads,
Map<String, Set<Module>> extraExports,
Map<String, Set<Module>> extraOpens,
Set<Class<?>> extraUses,
Map<Class<?>, List<Class<?>>> extraProvides)
{
if (!module.isNamed())
return;
if (!isModifiableModule(module))
throw new UnmodifiableModuleException(module.getName());
// copy and check reads
extraReads = new HashSet<>(extraReads);
if (extraReads.contains(null))
throw new NullPointerException("'extraReads' contains null");
// copy and check exports and opens
extraExports = cloneAndCheckMap(module, extraExports);
extraOpens = cloneAndCheckMap(module, extraOpens);
// copy and check uses
extraUses = new HashSet<>(extraUses);
if (extraUses.contains(null))
throw new NullPointerException("'extraUses' contains null");
// copy and check provides
Map<Class<?>, List<Class<?>>> tmpProvides = new HashMap<>();
for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, List<Class<?>>> e : extraProvides.entrySet()) {
Class<?> service = e.getKey();
if (service == null)
throw new NullPointerException("'extraProvides' contains null");
List<Class<?>> providers = new ArrayList<>(e.getValue());
if (providers.isEmpty())
throw new IllegalArgumentException("list of providers is empty");
providers.forEach(p -> {
if (p.getModule() != module)
throw new IllegalArgumentException(p + " not in " + module);
if (!service.isAssignableFrom(p))
throw new IllegalArgumentException(p + " is not a " + service);
});
tmpProvides.put(service, providers);
}
extraProvides = tmpProvides;
// update reads
extraReads.forEach(m -> Modules.addReads(module, m));
// update exports
for (Map.Entry<String, Set<Module>> e : extraExports.entrySet()) {
String pkg = e.getKey();
Set<Module> targets = e.getValue();
targets.forEach(m -> Modules.addExports(module, pkg, m));
}
// update opens
for (Map.Entry<String, Set<Module>> e : extraOpens.entrySet()) {
String pkg = e.getKey();
Set<Module> targets = e.getValue();
targets.forEach(m -> Modules.addOpens(module, pkg, m));
}
// update uses
extraUses.forEach(service -> Modules.addUses(module, service));
// update provides
for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, List<Class<?>>> e : extraProvides.entrySet()) {
Class<?> service = e.getKey();
List<Class<?>> providers = e.getValue();
providers.forEach(p -> Modules.addProvides(module, service, p));
}
}
...
}

Instrumentation接口有一段很重要的注释,大家自己看吧,就不多说了:

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/**
* This class provides services needed to instrument Java
* programming language code.
* Instrumentation is the addition of byte-codes to methods for the
* purpose of gathering data to be utilized by tools.
* Since the changes are purely additive, these tools do not modify
* application state or behavior.
* Examples of such benign tools include monitoring agents, profilers,
* coverage analyzers, and event loggers.
*
* <P>
* There are two ways to obtain an instance of the
* <code>Instrumentation</code> interface:
*
* <ol>
* <li><p> When a JVM is launched in a way that indicates an agent
* class. In that case an <code>Instrumentation</code> instance
* is passed to the <code>premain</code> method of the agent class.
* </p></li>
* <li><p> When a JVM provides a mechanism to start agents sometime
* after the JVM is launched. In that case an <code>Instrumentation</code>
* instance is passed to the <code>agentmain</code> method of the
* agent code. </p> </li>
* </ol>
* <p>
* These mechanisms are described in the
* {@linkplain java.lang.instrument package specification}.
* <p>
* Once an agent acquires an <code>Instrumentation</code> instance,
* the agent may call methods on the instance at any time.
*
* @since 1.5
*/
public interface Instrumentation {
}

那么,我们最后,走入addProvider(m, service, impl)这个方法中:

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/**
* Add a provider in the given module to this services catalog
*
* @apiNote This method is for use by java.lang.instrument
*/
public void addProvider(Module module, Class<?> service, Class<?> impl) {
List<ServiceProvider> list = providers(service.getName());
list.add(new ServiceProvider(module, impl.getName()));
}
...
public final class ServiceProvider {
private final Module module;
private final String providerName;
public ServiceProvider(Module module, String providerName) {
this.module = module;
this.providerName = providerName;
}
...
}

再经过了这么曲曲折折的过程,终于拿到了ServiceProvider,里面包括了我们所要调用实现类的地址信息

于是,看下ServiceLoader这个类定义的Provider静态内部接口:

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/**
* Represents a service provider located by {@code ServiceLoader}.
*
* <p> When using a loader's {@link ServiceLoader#stream() stream()} method
* then the elements are of type {@code Provider}. This allows processing
* to select or filter on the provider class without instantiating the
* provider. </p>
*
* @param <S> The service type
* @since 9
* @spec JPMS
*/
public static interface Provider<S> extends Supplier<S> {
/**
* Returns the provider type. There is no guarantee that this type is
* accessible or that it has a public no-args constructor. The {@link
* #get() get()} method should be used to obtain the provider instance.
*
* <p> When a module declares that the provider class is created by a
* provider factory then this method returns the return type of its
* public static "{@code provider()}" method.
*
* @return The provider type
*/
Class<? extends S> type();
/**
* Returns an instance of the provider.
*
* @return An instance of the provider.
*
* @throws ServiceConfigurationError
* If the service provider cannot be instantiated, or in the
* case of a provider factory, the public static
* "{@code provider()}" method returns {@code null} or throws
* an error or exception. The {@code ServiceConfigurationError}
* will carry an appropriate cause where possible.
*/
@Override S get();
}

然后我们回到之前追到的iteratorFor方法,知道其返回的是 Iterator<ServiceProvider>类型

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/**
* Returns an iterator to iterate over the implementations of {@code
* service} in modules defined to the given class loader or in custom
* layers with a module defined to this class loader.
*/
private Iterator<ServiceProvider> iteratorFor(ClassLoader loader) {
// modules defined to the class loader
ServicesCatalog catalog;
if (loader == null) {
catalog = BootLoader.getServicesCatalog();
} else {
catalog = ServicesCatalog.getServicesCatalogOrNull(loader);
}
List<ServiceProvider> providers;
if (catalog == null) {
providers = List.of();
} else {
providers = catalog.findServices(serviceName);
}
...
}

然后回到ModuleServicesLookupIterator()这个构造函数,直接看这个内部类,也就是调用这个

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/**
* Implements lazy service provider lookup of service providers that
* are provided by modules defined to a class loader or to modules in
* layers with a module defined to the class loader.
*/
private final class ModuleServicesLookupIterator<T>
implements Iterator<Provider<T>>
{
ClassLoader currentLoader;
Iterator<ServiceProvider> iterator;
Provider<T> nextProvider;
ServiceConfigurationError nextError;
ModuleServicesLookupIterator() {
this.currentLoader = loader;
this.iterator = iteratorFor(loader);
}
...
}

newLookupIterator这个方法中得到ModuleServicesLookupIterator的实例first,并调用其hasNext方法

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/**
* Returns a new lookup iterator.
*/
private Iterator<Provider<S>> newLookupIterator() {
assert layer == null || loader == null;
if (layer != null) {
return new LayerLookupIterator<>();
} else {
Iterator<Provider<S>> first = new ModuleServicesLookupIterator<>();
Iterator<Provider<S>> second = new LazyClassPathLookupIterator<>();
return new Iterator<Provider<S>>() {
@Override
public boolean hasNext() {
return (first.hasNext() || second.hasNext());
}
@Override
public Provider<S> next() {
if (first.hasNext()) {
return first.next();
} else if (second.hasNext()) {
return second.next();
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
}
};
}

我们来进入这个hasNext方法,也就是在这里,调用了loadProvider生成了一个bean

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@Override
public boolean hasNext() {
while (nextProvider == null && nextError == null) {
// get next provider to load
while (!iterator.hasNext()) {
if (currentLoader == null) {
return false;
} else {
currentLoader = currentLoader.getParent();
iterator = iteratorFor(currentLoader);
}
}
// attempt to load provider
ServiceProvider provider = iterator.next();
try {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Provider<T> next = (Provider<T>) loadProvider(provider);
nextProvider = next;
} catch (ServiceConfigurationError e) {
nextError = e;
}
}
return true;
}
@Override
public Provider<T> next() {
if (!hasNext())
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Provider<T> provider = nextProvider;
if (provider != null) {
nextProvider = null;
return provider;
} else {
ServiceConfigurationError e = nextError;
assert e != null;
nextError = null;
throw e;
}
}
}

走进这个loadProvider方法,抛开前面所有,我们只看最后返回为:new ProviderImpl<S>(service, type, ctor, acc)

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/**
* Loads a service provider in a module.
*
* Returns {@code null} if the service provider's module doesn't read
* the module with the service type.
*
* @throws ServiceConfigurationError if the class cannot be loaded or
* isn't the expected sub-type (or doesn't define a provider
* factory method that returns the expected type)
*/
private Provider<S> loadProvider(ServiceProvider provider) {
Module module = provider.module();
if (!module.canRead(service.getModule())) {
// module does not read the module with the service type
return null;
}
String cn = provider.providerName();
Class<?> clazz = null;
if (acc == null) {
try {
clazz = Class.forName(module, cn);
} catch (LinkageError e) {
fail(service, "Unable to load " + cn, e);
}
} else {
PrivilegedExceptionAction<Class<?>> pa = () -> Class.forName(module, cn);
try {
clazz = AccessController.doPrivileged(pa);
} catch (PrivilegedActionException pae) {
Throwable x = pae.getCause();
fail(service, "Unable to load " + cn, x);
return null;
}
}
if (clazz == null) {
fail(service, "Provider " + cn + " not found");
}
int mods = clazz.getModifiers();
if (!Modifier.isPublic(mods)) {
fail(service, clazz + " is not public");
}
// if provider in explicit module then check for static factory method
if (inExplicitModule(clazz)) {
Method factoryMethod = findStaticProviderMethod(clazz);
if (factoryMethod != null) {
Class<?> returnType = factoryMethod.getReturnType();
if (!service.isAssignableFrom(returnType)) {
fail(service, factoryMethod + " return type not a subtype");
}
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Class<? extends S> type = (Class<? extends S>) returnType;
return new ProviderImpl<S>(service, type, factoryMethod, acc);
}
}
// no factory method so must be a subtype
if (!service.isAssignableFrom(clazz)) {
fail(service, clazz.getName() + " not a subtype");
}
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Class<? extends S> type = (Class<? extends S>) clazz;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Constructor<? extends S> ctor = (Constructor<? extends S> ) getConstructor(clazz);
return new ProviderImpl<S>(service, type, ctor, acc);
}

最后,我们通过查看这个ProviderImpl类终于得到了我们想要得到的结果。

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/**
* A Provider implementation that supports invoking, with reduced
* permissions, the static factory to obtain the provider or the
* provider's no-arg constructor.
*/
private static class ProviderImpl<S> implements Provider<S> {
final Class<S> service;
final Class<? extends S> type;
final Method factoryMethod; // factory method or null
final Constructor<? extends S> ctor; // public no-args constructor or null
final AccessControlContext acc;
ProviderImpl(Class<S> service,
Class<? extends S> type,
Method factoryMethod,
AccessControlContext acc) {
this.service = service;
this.type = type;
this.factoryMethod = factoryMethod;
this.ctor = null;
this.acc = acc;
}
ProviderImpl(Class<S> service,
Class<? extends S> type,
Constructor<? extends S> ctor,
AccessControlContext acc) {
this.service = service;
this.type = type;
this.factoryMethod = null;
this.ctor = ctor;
this.acc = acc;
}
@Override
public Class<? extends S> type() {
return type;
}
@Override
public S get() {
if (factoryMethod != null) {
return invokeFactoryMethod();
} else {
return newInstance();
}
}

IOC和模块化所提供的类似效果的最大的区别就是,前者是提供了实例化的bean(即便是通过AOP实现的,这点很重要,Java9模块化在使用Spring的时候会有特别的设置),而且是基于Spring容器的单例的存在(多例注入的问题请参考我这方面的Spring源码解析),后者是提供了class字节码所在的路径,用的时候内部会自行生成实例,所以是多例的。

其实整个过程,Java的模块化文件系统起了很大的作用(这块看情况假如篇幅比较长久不放在我的书里了),然后自己追源码的思路也在这里给大家展现了一番,希望可以对大家有所帮助,看源码不要上来就瞎找的。另外,最重要的一点就是,不要因为源码很多,很复杂就轻言放弃,看的多了,看的久了,自然就有一套属于自己的方法论了。

您的支持将鼓励我继续创作!